Byzantium, circa 10th-12th century CE


Found in Genizah of Ben Ezra Synagogue, Fostat, Egypt. Cambridge fragments taken to Cambridge by S. Schechter, 1896–97. Jerusalem fragment acquired by David Kaufmann, formerly in the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Hungary. (The Kaufmann Genizah framents were deposited in the library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.) Purloined by a scholar, and taken to Israel, where it was acquired by the JNUL.


Scholia Fragments of a commentary on Ezéchiel and the Minor Prophets written mainly in Hebrew, with many Greek words and phrases, which are employed sometimes to translate the Hebrew of the biblical text, and sometimes to clarify some explanatory point. The Hebrew is heavily influenced by Greek. The commentator is mainly concerned to clarify obscurities and difficulties in the Hebrew. The historical background of the prophecies is sought for the most part in Nebuchadnezzar's invasion of Judaea, but there are also references to the Hasmoneans and to Herod.


Written on two rotuli (scrolls written vertically, made up of strips of parchment sewn together). One was about 3 metres long, the other much shorter. Width: 10.7–12.3 cm. Many sections of text are lacking.


Brown ink. Square Hebrew script. Greek words usually pointed.


de Lange, Nicholas, Greek Jewish texts from the Cairo Geniza, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 1996.

Aslanov, Cyril, Les gloses judéo-helléniques du "Commentaire de Re'uel sur Ezeéchiel" Découvert à la Geniza du Caire, Revue des E/tudes Juives, 1998, 157, 7-45.

Löwinger, S., A. Scheiber, Genizah publications in memory of Prof. Dr. David Kaufmann, XII, Budapest, 1949.

Mackridge, Peter, Review of de Lange, Greek Jewish Texts, BJGS, Winter, 1996, 21–24.

Niehoff-Panagiotidis, Johannes, Review of de Lange, Greek Jewish Texts, Südost-Forschungen, 58, 1999, 474–80.

Niehoff-Panagiotides, Johannes, Rabbinische Lebenswelt und rabbinische Hermeneutik : die griechischen Juden in der Kairoer Genizah, Byzantion , 74, 2004, 51–109.

Steiner, Richard C., Textual and exegetical notes to Nicholas de Lange, Greek Jewish texts from the Cairo Genizah, JQR, 89, 1998, 155–69.

Steiner, Richard C. , The Byzantine biblical commentaries from the Genizah: Rabbanite vs. Karaite, M. Bar-Asher et al., Shai le-Sara Japhet. Studies in the Bible, its exegesis and its language, Jerusalem, 2007, 243–262.

Ta-Shma, Israel M. , Byzantine Bible commentary from the turn of the 10th–11th century’ [in Hebrew], Kneset mehqarim: ‘Iyyunim bassifrut harabbanit biyemey habbeynayim [Studies in medieval rabbinic literature: Italy and Byzantium], 3, Jerusalem, 2005, 241–58.